Publications

Carpenter, S. K., King-Shepard, Q., & Nokes-Malach, T. J. (in press). The prequestion effect: Why it is useful to ask students questions before they learn. In C. Overson, C. Hakala, L. Kordonowy, & V. Benassi (Eds.), In their own words: What scholars want you to know about why and how to apply the science of learning in your academic setting. American Psychological Association.

Kelly, J. W., Lim, A. F., & Carpenter, S. K. (in press). Turn-by-turn route guidance does not impair route learning. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition.

Yeung, K. L., Carpenter, S. K., & Corral, D. (in press). A comprehensive review of educational technology on objective learning outcomes in academic contexts. Educational Psychology Review. 

Witherby, A. E., & Carpenter, S. K. (in press). The rich-get-richer effect: Prior knowledge predicts new learning of domain-relevant information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition.  [pdf]

Carpenter, S. K. (2021). Distributed practice/spacing effect. In Li-fang Zhang (Ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford University Press.  [pdf] 

Corral, D., Carpenter, S. K., & Clingan-Siverly, S. (2021). The effects of immediate versus delayed feedback on complex concept learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 786-799.

St. Hilaire, K. J., & Carpenter, S. K. (2020). Prequestions enhance learning, but only when they are remembered. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 26, 705-716.  [pdf]

de Bruin, A. B. H., Roelle, J., Carpenter, S. K., & Baars, M. (2020). Synthesizing cognitive load and self-regulation theory: A theoretical framework and research agenda. Educational Psychology Review, 32, 903-915.  [pdf]

Carpenter, S. K., Endres, T., & Hui, L. (2020). Students' use of retrieval in self-regulated learning: Implications for monitoring and regulating effortful learning experiences. Educational Psychology Review, 32, 1029-1054.  [pdf]

Corral, D., & Carpenter, S. K. (2020). Facilitating transfer through incorrect examples and explanatory feedback. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73, 1340-1359.  

Carpenter, S. K., Witherby, A. E., & Tauber, S. K. (2020). On students' (mis)judgments of learning and teaching effectiveness: Where we stand and how to move forward. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 9, 181-185.  [pdf]

Carpenter, S. K., Witherby, A. E., & Tauber, S. K. (2020). On students' (mis)judgments of learning and teaching effectiveness. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 9, 137-151.  [pdf]

Corral, D., Carpenter, S. K., Perkins, K., & Gentile, D. (2020). Assessing students' use of optional online lecture reviews. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 34, 318-329.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Northern, P. E., Tauber, S. K., & Toftness, A. R. (2020). Effects of lecture fluency and instructor experience on students’ judgments of learning, test scores, and evaluations of instructors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 26, 26-39.  [pdf]

Carpenter, S. K., & Geller, J. (2020). Is a picture really worth a thousand words? Evaluating contributions of fluency and analytic processing in metacognitive judgments for pictures in foreign language vocabulary learning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73, 211-224.  [pdf]

St. Hilaire, K. J., Carpenter, S. K., & Jennings, J. (2019). Using prequestions to enhance learning from reading passages: The roles of question type and structure building ability. Memory, 27, 1204-1213.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., & Agarwal, P. K. (2019). How to use spaced retrieval practice to boost learning. Student and teacher practice guide. Available at https://www.retrievalpractice.org/library  [pdf]

 

Toftness, A. R., Carpenter, S. K., Lauber, S., & Mickes, L. (2018). The limited effects of prequestions on learning from authentic lecture videos. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 7, 370-378.  [pdf]

 

Geller, J., Still, M., Dark, V. J., & Carpenter, S. K. (2018). Would disfluency by any other name still be disfluent? Examining the disfluency effect with cursive handwriting. Memory & Cognition, 46, 1109-1126.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Haynes, C. L., Corral, D., & Yeung, K. L. (2018). Hypercorrection of high confidence errors in the classroom. Memory, 26, 1379-1384.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Rahman, S., & Perkins, K. (2018). The effects of prequestions on classroom learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 24, 34-42.  [pdf]

Geller, J., Toftness, A. R., Armstrong, P. I., Carpenter, S. K., Manz, C. L., Coffman, C. R., & Lamm, M. H. (2018). Study strategies and beliefs about learning as a function of academic achievement and achievement goals. Memory, 26, 683-690.  [pdf]

 

Toftness, A. R., Carpenter, S. K., Geller, J., Lauber, S., Johnson, M., & Armstrong, P. I. (2018). Instructor fluency leads to higher confidence in learning, but not better learning. Metacognition & Learning, 13, 1-14.  [pdf]

 

Geller, J., Carpenter, S. K., Lamm, M. H., Rahman, S., Armstrong, P. I., & Coffman, C. R. (2017). Prequestions do not enhance the benefits of retrieval in a STEM classroom. Cognitive Research: Principles & Implications, 2:42.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Rahman, S., Lund, T. J. S., Armstrong, P. I., Lamm, M. H., Reason, R. D., & Coffman, C. R. (2017). Students’ use of optional online reviews and their relationship to summative assessment outcomes in introductory biology. CBE Life Sciences Education, 16, 1-9.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K. (2017). Spacing effects in learning and memory. In J. T. Wixted (Ed.), Cognitive Psychology of Memory, Vol. 2 Learning and Memory: A Comprehensive Reference, 2nd edition, J. H. Byrne (Ed.), pp. 465-485. Oxford: Academic Press.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., & Toftness, A. R. (2017). The effect of prequestions on learning from video presentations. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 6, 104-109.  [pdf]

 

Endres, T., Carpenter, S. K., Martin, A., & Renkl, A. (2017). Enhancing learning by retrieval: Enriching free recall with elaborative prompting. Learning & Instruction, 49, 13-20.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., & Yeung, K. L. (2017). The role of mediator strength in learning from retrieval. Journal of Memory & Language, 92, 128-141.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Mickes, L., Rahman, S., & Fernandez, C. S. (2016). The effect of instructor fluency on students’ perceptions of instructors, confidence in learning, and actual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 22, 161-172.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Lund, T. J. S., Coffman, C. R., Armstrong, P. I., Lamm, M. H., & Reason, R. D. (2016). A classroom study on the relationship between student achievement and retrieval-enhanced learning. Educational Psychology Review, 28, 353-375.  [pdf]

 

Butler, A. C., & Carpenter, S. K. (2015). Separating myth from reality in education: Introduction to the special issue. Educational Psychology Review, 27, 563-565.  [pdf]

 

Kelly, J. W., Carpenter, S. K., & Sjolund, L. A. (2015). Retrieval enhances route knowledge acquisition, but only when movement errors are prevented. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 41, 1540-1547.  [pdf]

 

Rawson, K. A., Vaughn, K. E., & Carpenter, S. K. (2015). Does the benefit of testing depend on lag, and if so why? Evaluating the elaborative retrieval hypothesis. Memory & Cognition, 43, 619-633.  [pdf]

 

Mullaney, K. M., Carpenter, S. K., Grotenhuis, C., & Burianek, S. (2014). Waiting for feedback helps if you want to know the answer: The role of curiosity in the delay-of-feedback benefit. Memory & Cognition, 42, 1273-1284.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K. (2014). Enhancing student learning in low-maintenance and cost-effective ways: Introduction to the special issue on applying cognition to education. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 3, 121-123.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K. (2014). Spacing and interleaving of study and practice. In V. A. Benassi, C. E. Overson, & C. M. Hakala (Eds.), Applying the science of learning in education: Infusing psychological science into the curriculum (pp. 131-141). American Psychological Association.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Wilford, M., Kornell, N., & Mullaney, K. M. (2013). Appearances can be deceiving: Instructor fluency increases perceptions of learning without increasing actual learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1350-1356.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., & Mueller, F. E. (2013). The effects of interleaving vs. blocking on foreign language pronunciation learning. Memory & Cognition, 41, 671-682.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Lohse, K. R., Healy, A. F., Bourne, L. E. Jr., & Clegg, B. A. (2013). External focus of attention improves performance in a speeded aiming task. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 2, 14-19.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K. (2012). Testing enhances the transfer of learning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 279-283.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., & Kelly, J. W. (2012). Tests enhance retention and transfer of spatial learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 443-448.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Sachs, R. E., Martin, B., Schmidt, K., & Looft, R. (2012). Learning new vocabulary in German: The effects of inferring word meanings, type of feedback, and time of test. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 81-86.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Cepeda, N. J., Rohrer, D., Kang, S. H. K., & Pashler, H. (2012). Using spacing to enhance diverse forms of learning: Review of recent research and implications for instruction. Educational Psychology Review, 24, 369-378.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., & Olson, K. M. (2012). Are pictures good for learning new vocabulary in a foreign language? Only if you think they are not. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 38, 92-101.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K. (2012). Effects of testing on learning. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (pp. 1095-1097). New York: Springer.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K. (2011). Semantic information activated during retrieval contributes to later retention: Support for the mediator effectiveness hypothesis of the testing effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 37, 1547-1552.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., & Vul, E. (2011). Delaying feedback by three seconds benefits retention of face-name pairs: The role of active anticipatory processing. Memory & Cognition, 39, 1211-1221.  [pdf]

 

Kang, S. H. K., Pashler, H., Cepeda, N. J., Rohrer, D., Carpenter, S. K., & Mozer, M. C. (2011). Does incorrect guessing impair fact learning? Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 48-59.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K. (2009). Cue strength as a moderator of the testing effect: The benefits of elaborative retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 35, 1563-1569.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Pashler, H., & Cepeda, N. J. (2009). Using tests to enhance 8th grade students’ retention of U. S. history facts. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 760-771.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Pashler, H., Wixted, J. T., & Vul, E. (2008). The effects of tests on learning and forgetting. Memory & Cognition, 36, 438-448.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., & Pashler, H. (2007). Testing beyond words: Using tests to enhance visuospatial map learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 474-478.  [pdf]

 

Pashler, H., Rohrer, D., Cepeda, N. J., & Carpenter, S. K. (2007). Enhancing learning and retarding forgetting: Choices and consequences. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 187-193.  [pdf]

 

Wixted, J. T., & Carpenter, S. K. (2007). The Wickelgren power law and the Ebbinghaus savings function. Psychological Science, 18, 133-134.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., Pashler, H., & Vul, E. (2006). What types of learning are enhanced by a cued recall test? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 826-830.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., & DeLosh, E. L. (2006). Impoverished cue support enhances subsequent retention: Support for the elaborative retrieval explanation of the testing effect. Memory & Cognition, 34, 268-276.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K., & DeLosh, E. L. (2005). Application of the testing and spacing effects to name learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 619-636.  [pdf]

 

Carpenter, S. K. (2005). Some neglected contributions of Wilhelm Wundt to the psychology of memory. Psychological Reports, 97, 63-73.  [pdf]